1. Read extensively, especially in your non-native language(s).
Read high quality newspapers (e.g. the New York Times, Wall Street Journal) EVERY DAY for at least a year.
Read high quality news magazines, cover to cover.
Read your favorite topics in your non-native language(s).
Read other well-written material that will help broaden your general knowledge.
2. Watch the TV news and listen to radio news and podcasts on current events in all workinglanguages.
Don't just listen to news stories; analyze them.
Keep abreast of current events and issues.
Record news programs and interviews so you can listen to them later.
3. Strengthen your general knowledge of economics, history, the law, international politics, and scientific concepts and principles (in that order).
Take college-level courses, review high school texts, etc.
Strengthen your knowledge in a specialized field (preferably in a technical field, such as computers).
4. Live in a country where your non-native language is spoken.
A stay of at least six months to a year is recommended.
Live with and/or frequently interact with native speakers of your non-native language.
Take content-related courses (e.g. macroeconomics, political science) in your non-native language (not just pure language courses).
Work in a setting that requires high level use of your non-native language.
5. Fine-tune your writing and research skills.
Take challenging composition courses (not just creative writing courses, but classes in journalism, technical writing, etc.) so you can “speak” journalese, UNese, legalese, etc.
Copy (by hand) sections of textbooks and periodicals in your non-native language(s).
Make a note of unfamiliar or troublesome grammatical points and work towards mastering them.
6. Improve your public speaking skills.
Take rigorous speech courses.
Practice writing and making presentations in front of other people in both your native and foreign language(s). (Have native speakers of your non-native language edit your speeches.)
7. Hone your analytical skills.
Practice listening to speeches and orally summarizing the main points.
Practice writing summaries of news articles.
Practice deciphering difficult texts (e.g. philosophy, law, etc.).
Practice explaining complicated concepts understandably.
Identify resources for background research (e.g. library, Internet, etc.).
8. Become computer savvy.
Familiarize yourself with navigation and file management under current Windows operating systems.
Develop an understanding of the features Windows offers for multilingual processing, such as language-specific keyboard layouts, regional settings for units of measurement.
Learn to use advanced functions of Word, Excel, and other Microsoft Office applications in both your native and non-native languages.
Become an expert in search engines and online research by using these tools on a daily basis.
9. Learn how to take care of yourself.
Eat sensibly, exercise regularly, and get sufficient sleep. These are all habits required of a good translator/interpreter.
10. Be prepared for lifelong learning.
Be patient. Bringing your language skills and analytical skills up to the level required of a professional translator or interpreter is not a task that can be accomplished in a few short years. Only with a lot of sustained hard work can anyone truly succeed in these challenging and exciting fields.
Mobile Telecoms: Wireless: The Next Generation
A new wave of mobile technology is on its way, and will bring drastic change
The future is already arriving, it is just a question of knowing where to look. On Changshou Road in Shanghai, eagle eyes may spot an odd rectangular object on top of an office block: it is a collection of 128 miniature antennae. Pedestrians in Manhattan can catch a glimpse of apparatus that looks like a video camera on a stand, but jerks around and has a strange, hornlike protrusion where the lens should be. It blasts a narrow beam of radio waves at buildings so they can bounce their way to the receiver. The campus of the University of Surrey in Guildford, England, is dotted with 44 antennae, which form virtual wireless cells that follow a device around.
未来已然在目，只在于我们放眼何方。上海的长寿路上，目光敏锐的人会发现一座办公楼的楼顶架着奇怪的矩形物体：由128条微型天线组成的设备。在曼哈顿，行人会瞥见摄像头般的装置立在支架上，不但会猛然转动，而且在本应是镜头的位置有奇怪的角状突出。该装置向建筑物发射窄束无线电波，经过反射的电波可以传给接收器。萨里大学(University of Surrey)在英格兰吉尔福德(Guildford)的校园内分布着44台天线，形成一套虚拟的无线基站，供手机使用。
These antennae are vanguards of a new generation of wireless technologies. Although the previous batch, collectively called “fourth generation”, or 4G, is still being rolled out in many countries, the telecoms industry has already started working on the next, 5G. On February 12th AT&T, America’s second-largest mobile operator, said it would begin testing whether prototype 5G circuitry works indoors, following similar news in September from Verizon, the number one. South Korea wants to have a 5G network up and running when it hosts the Winter Olympics in 2018; Japan wants the same for the summer games in 2020. When the industry held its annual jamboree, Mobile World Congress, in Barcelona in February, 5G topped the agenda.
这些天线是新一代无线技术的前沿成果。虽然许多国家仍在推广被统称为“第四代”(即4G)的前一代无线技术，但电信业已经迈向下一代技术即5G的研发。2月12日，美国第二大移动运营商AT&T表示将试验5G原型电路能否在室内接通。而早在去年9月，美国第一大移动运营商Verizon也做过类似的实验。韩国希望在2018年主办冬季奥运会时能建成并启用5G网络;日本希望在2020年主办夏季奥运会时实现同样的愿景。2月在无线业界于巴塞罗那召开的年度峰会世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)上，5G技术成为首要议题。
Mobile telecoms have come a long way since Martin Cooper of Motorola, inventor of the DynaTAC, the first commercially available handset, demonstrated it in 1973. In the early 2000s, when 3G technology made web-browsing feasible on mobiles, operators splashed out more than $100 billion on radio-spectrum licences, only to find that the technology most had agreed to use was harder to implement than expected.
自摩托罗拉的马丁·库帕(Martin Cooper)在1973年展示其发明的首款商用手机DynaTAC以来，移动通讯已有长足的发展。21世纪初，3G技术使手机上网成为可能，运营商于是砸出超过千亿美元购入无线电频谱牌照，却发现这项大多数人已同意使用的技术推广起来难于预期。 The advent of 5G is likely to bring another splurge of investment, just as orders for 4G equipment are peaking. The goal is to be able to offer users no less than the “perception of infinite capacity”, says Rahim Tafazolli, director of the 5G Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey. Rare will be the device that is not wirelessly connected, from self-driving cars and drones to the sensors, industrial machines and household appliances that together constitute the “internet of things” (IoT).
正当4G设备迎来订单高峰之际，5G的出现很可能激发另一轮投资热潮。目标是至少给用户以 “功能无限的印象”，萨里大学5G创新中心主任拉希姆·塔法佐利(Rahim Tafazolli)说。将来，从无人驾驶汽车、无人机到构成“物联网”的一切传感器、工业机械及家用电器，几乎所有设备都能无线联网。
It is easy to dismiss all this as “a lot of hype”, in the words of Kester Mann of CCS Insight, a research firm. When it comes to 5G, much is still up in the air: not only which band of radio spectrum and which wireless technologies will be used, but what standards makers of network gear and handsets will have to comply with. Telecoms firms have reached consensus only on a set of rough “requirements”. The most important are connection speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second and response times (“latency”) of below 1 millisecond.
视这一切为“炒作”并嗤之以鼻很容易，研究公司CCS Insight的凯斯特·曼(Kester Mann)说道。提到5G，大都未有定论：不只是利用哪一频段的无线电频谱及哪些无线技术未定，还有网络设备及手机制造商须遵照哪些标准也未确定。电信公司已就一套宽泛的“要求”达成共识。最重要的是连接速度最高要达到10Gbps，而且响应时间(“网络延迟”)须低于一毫秒。
Yet the momentum is real. South Korea and Japan are front-runners in wired broadband, and Olympic games are an opportunity to show the world that they intend also to stay ahead in wireless, even if that may mean having to upgrade their 5G networks to comply with a global standard once it is agreed. AT&T and Verizon both invested early in 4G, and would like to lead again with 5G. The market for network equipment has peaked, as recent results from Ericsson and Nokia show, so the makers also need a new generation of products and new groups of customers.
On the demand side, too, pressure is mounting for better wireless infrastructure. The rapid growth in data traffic will continue for the foreseeable future, says Sundeep Rangan of NYU Wireless, a department of New York University. According to one estimate, networks need to be ready for a 1,000-fold increase in data volumes in the first half of the 2020s. And the radio spectrum used by 4G, which mostly sits below 3 gigahertz, is running out, and thus getting more expensive. An auction in America last year raked in $45 billion.
需求方面也一样，改善无线基础设施的呼声日益迫切。纽约大学无线研究中心(NYU Wireless)的森迪普·兰根(Sundeep Rangan)表示，在可预见的未来，数据流量将继续快速增长。据估计，在本世纪20年代的前五年，网络需要准备好迎接上千倍的数据量增长。而4G所用的无线电频段(大多低于3GHz)已逐渐稀缺，且愈加昂贵，去年美国一次竞拍便卖得450亿美元。
But the path to a 5G wireless paradise will not be smooth. It is not only the usual telecoms suspects who will want a say in this mother of all networks. Media companies will want priority to be given to generous bandwidth, so they can stream films with ever higher resolution. Most IoT firms will not need much bandwidth, but will want their sensors to run on one set of batteries for years – so they will want the 5G standard to put a premium on low power consumption. Online-gaming firms will worry about latency: players will complain if it is too high.
The most important set of new actors, however, are information-technology firms. The likes of Apple, IBM and Samsung have a big interest not only in selling more smartphones and other mobile devices, but also in IoT, which is tipped to generate the next big wave of revenues for them and other companies. Google, which already operates high-speed fibre-optic networks in several American cities and may be tempted to build a wireless one, has shown an interest in 5G. In 2014 it bought Alpental Technologies, a startup which was developing a cheap, high-speed communications service using extremely high radio frequencies, known as “millimetre wave” (mmWave), the spectrum bands above 3 gigahertz where most of 5G is expected to live.
To satisfy all these actors will not be easy, predicts Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericsson’s chief technology officer. Questions over spectrum may be the easiest to solve, in part because the World Radiocommunication Conference, established by international treaty, will settle them. Its last gathering, in November, failed to agree on the frequencies for 5G, but it is expected to do so when it next meets in 2019. It is likely to carve out space in the mmWave bands. Tests such as the one in Manhattan mentioned above, which are conducted by researchers from NYU Wireless, have shown that such bands can be used for 5G: although they are blocked even by thin obstacles, they can be made to bounce around them.
For the first time there will not be competing sets of technical rules, as was the case with 4G, when LTE, now the standard, was initially threatened by WiMax, which was bankrolled by Intel, a chipmaker. Nobody seems willing to play Intel’s role this time around. That said, 5G will be facing a strong competitor, especially indoors: smartphone users are increasingly using Wi-Fi connections for calls and texts as well as data. That means they have ever less need for a mobile connection, no matter how blazingly fast it may be.