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翻译技巧:做个好英语翻译的十条建议

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口译也好,笔译也好,只要你参与到英语翻译的各种考试中,你就要明白自己将要面临的困难。下面小编就和大家分享翻译技巧:做个好英语翻译的十条建议,希望能够帮助到大家,来欣赏一下吧。

翻译技巧:做个好英语翻译的十条建议

1. Read extensively, especially in your non-native language(s).

1.多读书,尤其要读外语作品。

Read high quality newspapers (e.g. the New York Times, Wall Street Journal) EVERY DAY for at least a year.

每天读高质量的报纸(如《纽约时报》《华尔街日报》等),坚持至少一年。

Read high quality news magazines, cover to cover.

读高质量的杂志,从封面到封底,每一页都要读。

Read your favorite topics in your non-native language(s).

阅读关于你感兴趣的主题的外语作品。

Read other well-written material that will help broaden your general knowledge.

阅读其他高质量的,有助于拓宽视野的材料。

2. Watch the TV news and listen to radio news and podcasts on current events in all workinglanguages.

2.多关注电视和广播里的各语种时事报导。

Don't just listen to news stories; analyze them.

不要只把新闻当故事听,要分析新闻。

Keep abreast of current events and issues.

与时俱进,跟上时事的步伐。

Record news programs and interviews so you can listen to them later.

把新闻节目和采访录下来,以便回顾。

3. Strengthen your general knowledge of economics, history, the law, international politics, and scientific concepts and principles (in that order).

3.加强你在经济、历史、法律、国际政治和科学方面的知识,了解一些基本的概念和原理。

Take college-level courses, review high school texts, etc.

可以通过学习大学课程或复习高中课本来达到这一点。

Strengthen your knowledge in a specialized field (preferably in a technical field, such as computers).

加强你在某个特定领域的知识(是某个技术领域,如计算机等)。

4. Live in a country where your non-native language is spoken.

4.在通用语言是你所学外语的国家住上一段时间。

A stay of at least six months to a year is recommended.

推荐至少住上半年到一年。

Live with and/or frequently interact with native speakers of your non-native language.

和以你所学外语为母语的人住在一起或保持互动。

Take content-related courses (e.g. macroeconomics, political science) in your non-native language (not just pure language courses).

参加一些外语教授的课程(如宏观经济学,政治科学等,而不是单纯的语言课程)。

Work in a setting that requires high level use of your non-native language.

在对你的外语水平要求较高的环境里工作。

5. Fine-tune your writing and research skills.

5.提升你的写作和研究技能。

Take challenging composition courses (not just creative writing courses, but classes in journalism, technical writing, etc.) so you can “speak” journalese, UNese, legalese, etc.

参加有挑战性的写作课程(不仅仅是创意写作课,而是新闻写作、科技文章写作之类的课程),如此你方能熟悉“新闻体”、“联合国体”、“法律体”等等写作风格。

Copy (by hand) sections of textbooks and periodicals in your non-native language(s).

抄写外语课本和期刊段落。

Make a note of unfamiliar or troublesome grammatical points and work towards mastering them.

把不常用或者易出错的语法点一一记下来,努力掌握它们。

Practice proofreading.

多做改错练习。

6. Improve your public speaking skills.

6.提升你的公共演讲技能。

Take rigorous speech courses.

参加严格的演讲课程。

Practice writing and making presentations in front of other people in both your native and foreign language(s). (Have native speakers of your non-native language edit your speeches.)

多练习写讲稿和在其他人面前做演讲,既要用母语练也要用外语练。(让以你所学外语为母语的人来修改你的讲稿。)

7. Hone your analytical skills.

7.磨练你的分析技能。

Practice listening to speeches and orally summarizing the main points.

练习口头总结出听到的演讲的中心思想。

Practice writing summaries of news articles.

练习写新闻报道的摘要。

Practice deciphering difficult texts (e.g. philosophy, law, etc.).

练习阐释难懂的文章(如哲学文章、法律文章等)。

Practice explaining complicated concepts understandably.

练习把复杂的概念解释清楚。

Identify resources for background research (e.g. library, Internet, etc.).

为背景研究储备资源(包括图书馆、网络等等)。

8. Become computer savvy.

8.通晓电脑。

Familiarize yourself with navigation and file management under current Windows operating systems.

熟悉如何在Windows操作系统下导航和管理文件。

Develop an understanding of the features Windows offers for multilingual processing, such as language-specific keyboard layouts, regional settings for units of measurement.

了解Windows系统多语种进程的特点,比如特定语言的键盘布局,地区性设置的方法等等。

Learn to use advanced functions of Word, Excel, and other Microsoft Office applications in both your native and non-native languages.

熟悉Word,Excel和其他办公软件的母语版本以及外语版本。

Become an expert in search engines and online research by using these tools on a daily basis.

通过日常的频繁使用,熟悉搜索引擎和网络资源搜索。

9. Learn how to take care of yourself.

9.学会照顾自己。

Eat sensibly, exercise regularly, and get sufficient sleep. These are all habits required of a good translator/interpreter.

合理饮食,经常锻炼,睡眠充足。这是成为的译员所必需的习惯。

10. Be prepared for lifelong learning.

10.活到老,学到老。

Be patient. Bringing your language skills and analytical skills up to the level required of a professional translator or interpreter is not a task that can be accomplished in a few short years. Only with a lot of sustained hard work can anyone truly succeed in these challenging and exciting fields.

要有耐心。将自己的语言和分析能力提升到职业译员所需要的水平不是一朝一夕的事。只用通过长期不懈的努力,才能在这个充满挑战和刺激的领域取得成功。

上面这些内容大家看懂了吗?不要光看看,还要记在脑子里,印在心里,运用到实际考试当中。英语翻译能力的提升需要花费大量的时间,更要有惊人的毅力与耐心。如果你的成功欲望很强,那么就坚持下去,让自己不后悔于自己的付出。

2020年翻译资格考试(catti)一级笔译材料

Mobile Telecoms: Wireless: The Next Generation

移动通信:无线:下一世代(节选)

A new wave of mobile technology is on its way, and will bring drastic change

酝酿中的新一代移动技术将带来巨变

The future is already arriving, it is just a question of knowing where to look. On Changshou Road in Shanghai, eagle eyes may spot an odd rectangular object on top of an office block: it is a collection of 128 miniature antennae. Pedestrians in Manhattan can catch a glimpse of apparatus that looks like a video camera on a stand, but jerks around and has a strange, hornlike protrusion where the lens should be. It blasts a narrow beam of radio waves at buildings so they can bounce their way to the receiver. The campus of the University of Surrey in Guildford, England, is dotted with 44 antennae, which form virtual wireless cells that follow a device around.

未来已然在目,只在于我们放眼何方。上海的长寿路上,目光敏锐的人会发现一座办公楼的楼顶架着奇怪的矩形物体:由128条微型天线组成的设备。在曼哈顿,行人会瞥见摄像头般的装置立在支架上,不但会猛然转动,而且在本应是镜头的位置有奇怪的角状突出。该装置向建筑物发射窄束无线电波,经过反射的电波可以传给接收器。萨里大学(University of Surrey)在英格兰吉尔福德(Guildford)的校园内分布着44台天线,形成一套虚拟的无线基站,供手机使用。

These antennae are vanguards of a new generation of wireless technologies. Although the previous batch, collectively called “fourth generation”, or 4G, is still being rolled out in many countries, the telecoms industry has already started working on the next, 5G. On February 12th AT&T, America’s second-largest mobile operator, said it would begin testing whether prototype 5G circuitry works indoors, following similar news in September from Verizon, the number one. South Korea wants to have a 5G network up and running when it hosts the Winter Olympics in 2018; Japan wants the same for the summer games in 2020. When the industry held its annual jamboree, Mobile World Congress, in Barcelona in February, 5G topped the agenda.

这些天线是新一代无线技术的前沿成果。虽然许多国家仍在推广被统称为“第四代”(即4G)的前一代无线技术,但电信业已经迈向下一代技术即5G的研发。2月12日,美国第二大移动运营商AT&T表示将试验5G原型电路能否在室内接通。而早在去年9月,美国第一大移动运营商Verizon也做过类似的实验。韩国希望在2018年主办冬季奥运会时能建成并启用5G网络;日本希望在2020年主办夏季奥运会时实现同样的愿景。2月在无线业界于巴塞罗那召开的年度峰会世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)上,5G技术成为首要议题。

Mobile telecoms have come a long way since Martin Cooper of Motorola, inventor of the DynaTAC, the first commercially available handset, demonstrated it in 1973. In the early 2000s, when 3G technology made web-browsing feasible on mobiles, operators splashed out more than $100 billion on radio-spectrum licences, only to find that the technology most had agreed to use was harder to implement than expected.

自摩托罗拉的马丁·库帕(Martin Cooper)在1973年展示其发明的首款商用手机DynaTAC以来,移动通讯已有长足的发展。21世纪初,3G技术使手机上网成为可能,运营商于是砸出超过千亿美元购入无线电频谱牌照,却发现这项大多数人已同意使用的技术推广起来难于预期。 The advent of 5G is likely to bring another splurge of investment, just as orders for 4G equipment are peaking. The goal is to be able to offer users no less than the “perception of infinite capacity”, says Rahim Tafazolli, director of the 5G Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey. Rare will be the device that is not wirelessly connected, from self-driving cars and drones to the sensors, industrial machines and household appliances that together constitute the “internet of things” (IoT).

正当4G设备迎来订单高峰之际,5G的出现很可能激发另一轮投资热潮。目标是至少给用户以 “功能无限的印象”,萨里大学5G创新中心主任拉希姆·塔法佐利(Rahim Tafazolli)说。将来,从无人驾驶汽车、无人机到构成“物联网”的一切传感器、工业机械及家用电器,几乎所有设备都能无线联网。

It is easy to dismiss all this as “a lot of hype”, in the words of Kester Mann of CCS Insight, a research firm. When it comes to 5G, much is still up in the air: not only which band of radio spectrum and which wireless technologies will be used, but what standards makers of network gear and handsets will have to comply with. Telecoms firms have reached consensus only on a set of rough “requirements”. The most important are connection speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second and response times (“latency”) of below 1 millisecond.

视这一切为“炒作”并嗤之以鼻很容易,研究公司CCS Insight的凯斯特·曼(Kester Mann)说道。提到5G,大都未有定论:不只是利用哪一频段的无线电频谱及哪些无线技术未定,还有网络设备及手机制造商须遵照哪些标准也未确定。电信公司已就一套宽泛的“要求”达成共识。最重要的是连接速度最高要达到10Gbps,而且响应时间(“网络延迟”)须低于一毫秒。

Yet the momentum is real. South Korea and Japan are front-runners in wired broadband, and Olympic games are an opportunity to show the world that they intend also to stay ahead in wireless, even if that may mean having to upgrade their 5G networks to comply with a global standard once it is agreed. AT&T and Verizon both invested early in 4G, and would like to lead again with 5G. The market for network equipment has peaked, as recent results from Ericsson and Nokia show, so the makers also need a new generation of products and new groups of customers.

然而,势头已然成真。韩国和日本是有线宽带建设的领跑国家,举办奥运会是一个机会,向世界展现它们也想要领跑无线领域,即便这意味着在全球标准议定出台后它们可能必须升级其5G网络以符合标准要求。AT&T及Verizon均在早期率先投资4G,如今同样希望在5G上再度领先。正如爱立信和诺基亚最近业绩所显示的那样,网络设备市场已经饱和,因此制造商也需要新一代产品及新的客户群。

On the demand side, too, pressure is mounting for better wireless infrastructure. The rapid growth in data traffic will continue for the foreseeable future, says Sundeep Rangan of NYU Wireless, a department of New York University. According to one estimate, networks need to be ready for a 1,000-fold increase in data volumes in the first half of the 2020s. And the radio spectrum used by 4G, which mostly sits below 3 gigahertz, is running out, and thus getting more expensive. An auction in America last year raked in $45 billion.

需求方面也一样,改善无线基础设施的呼声日益迫切。纽约大学无线研究中心(NYU Wireless)的森迪普·兰根(Sundeep Rangan)表示,在可预见的未来,数据流量将继续快速增长。据估计,在本世纪20年代的前五年,网络需要准备好迎接上千倍的数据量增长。而4G所用的无线电频段(大多低于3GHz)已逐渐稀缺,且愈加昂贵,去年美国一次竞拍便卖得450亿美元。

But the path to a 5G wireless paradise will not be smooth. It is not only the usual telecoms suspects who will want a say in this mother of all networks. Media companies will want priority to be given to generous bandwidth, so they can stream films with ever higher resolution. Most IoT firms will not need much bandwidth, but will want their sensors to run on one set of batteries for years – so they will want the 5G standard to put a premium on low power consumption. Online-gaming firms will worry about latency: players will complain if it is too high.

但通往5G无线天堂的道路不会一帆风顺。对这一“万网之源”,争取话事权的不单是惯常那些电信企业。媒体公司希望优先获得更高的带宽,以便其以更高分辨率在线播放影片。大部分物联网企业不需要太大的带宽,而是想自己的传感器能靠一组电池续航数年,所以它们会希望5G标准重视低功耗。网游公司会担心网络延迟的问题:假如延迟过久,玩家会抱怨。

The most important set of new actors, however, are information-technology firms. The likes of Apple, IBM and Samsung have a big interest not only in selling more smartphones and other mobile devices, but also in IoT, which is tipped to generate the next big wave of revenues for them and other companies. Google, which already operates high-speed fibre-optic networks in several American cities and may be tempted to build a wireless one, has shown an interest in 5G. In 2014 it bought Alpental Technologies, a startup which was developing a cheap, high-speed communications service using extremely high radio frequencies, known as “millimetre wave” (mmWave), the spectrum bands above 3 gigahertz where most of 5G is expected to live.

然而,最重要的新登场者是信息技术公司。苹果、IBM、三星这类企业不但关心卖出更多的智能手机及其他移动设备,对于物联网这据称将为其带来下一波收入巨浪的领域,他们也饶有兴致。谷歌已在美国多个城市运营高速光纤网络业务,而且可能有意打造无线网络,目前该公司已对5G表示兴趣。2014年,谷歌收购了创业公司Alpental Technologies,该公司当时正在研发通过极高频无线电提供廉价而高速的通讯服务,即所谓的“毫米波”(mmWave,频段高于3GHz,也是5G预期主要使用的频段)。

To satisfy all these actors will not be easy, predicts Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericsson’s chief technology officer. Questions over spectrum may be the easiest to solve, in part because the World Radiocommunication Conference, established by international treaty, will settle them. Its last gathering, in November, failed to agree on the frequencies for 5G, but it is expected to do so when it next meets in 2019. It is likely to carve out space in the mmWave bands. Tests such as the one in Manhattan mentioned above, which are conducted by researchers from NYU Wireless, have shown that such bands can be used for 5G: although they are blocked even by thin obstacles, they can be made to bounce around them.

要满足所有各方所求并非易事,爱立信首席技术官乌尔夫·艾华信(Ulf Ewaldsson)预言道。频段问题也许是最容易解决的,一方面是因为按国际条约成立的世界无线电通信大会将解决这些问题。大会上一次召开是在去年11月,虽然当时无法就5G所用频率达成一致,但预计大会下一次在2019年召开时便可达成共识,并很可能会在毫米波频段中开辟空间。诸如上文提及由NYU无线研究中心研究人员在曼哈顿所做的测试已显示,这些频段可以用于5G:虽然薄障碍物也会造成阻隔,但可以让它们通过反射绕过障碍物。

For the first time there will not be competing sets of technical rules, as was the case with 4G, when LTE, now the standard, was initially threatened by WiMax, which was bankrolled by Intel, a chipmaker. Nobody seems willing to play Intel’s role this time around. That said, 5G will be facing a strong competitor, especially indoors: smartphone users are increasingly using Wi-Fi connections for calls and texts as well as data. That means they have ever less need for a mobile connection, no matter how blazingly fast it may be.

没有多套技术准则相互竞争,这实属首次,不像4G推出时的情形,如今普遍采用的LTE标准最初还受到芯片制造商英特尔投资开发的WiMax标准威胁。这次,似乎没有谁愿意扮演英特尔的角色。尽管如此,5G将面对一个强大对手,尤其是在室内:智能手机用户除了用Wi-Fi传输数据之外,也越来越多地用其打电话及发短信。那意味着他们对接入移动网络的需求越来越少,不管数据的传输有多么极速。


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