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翻译资格考试备考之翻译意识和技巧培养方法

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翻译资格考试该如何备考?今天小编给大家带来了翻译资格考试备考之翻译意识和技巧培养方法,希望可以帮助到同学们。下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

翻译资格考试备考:翻译意识和技巧培养方法

翻译意识和技巧的培养需要涉及以下几个方面:

第一:要对翻译的重要性有深刻的、充分的认识,翻译的对与错、好与坏有时会产生绝然不同的效果。例如,天涯海角:不是the End of the World (应为Land’s End / End of the Earth) 。再如,一小时内免费送机票上门:不是We give you tickets free of charge within one hour.(应为We offer free delivery of your air tickets within one hour after your booking confirmation.)

第二:要善于仔细地、深入地、准确地理解中文原文的意思。这是因为准确的理解是做好翻译的前提。例如,摸着石头过河:不是crossing the river by feeling the stones。(而是wade across the stream by feeling the way )正确的做法应该是按照下面的步骤去做:

1.“摸着石头过河”的字面意思如何理解?

2.它有什么暗含或延伸的意思?

3.英语里有没有相同或类似的说法?.如果有,就可以直接借用;如果没有,是进行直译还是意译?

4.如果直译为 crossing the river by feeling the stones是否能被外国人理解?

5.过河是乘船过(crossing by boat)还是淌水过(wading across),动词用什么形式?

6.这里的河是大河、中河还是小河 (river, stream, brook, etc.)?

7.摸的方式是用手摸还是用脚触?

8.石头是大石头还是小石头(rock, stone, pebble, etc.)?

9.如果意译为 learning by experiment / by trial and error是否可取?

10.直译和意译相结合wading across the stream by feeling the way如何?

第三:中文和英文的对应词有时意思并不相同或者不完全相同,不能照字面翻译。例如,他的英语说得真好,就像外国人一样。不是He speaks English so well, he sounds like a foreigner.而是He speaks English so well, he sounds like a native speaker.

拉动经济增长:不是pull economic growth,而是push/lift/increase/boost/stimulate/spur/drive/fuel/speed up/accelerate/generate/ fire up/ propel/ facilitate/reinforce/aid/assist/support/promote/encourage/foster/(sustain/maintain)。素质教育:不是quality education,而是caliber-focused education 或trait-centered education。

第四:有时候中文字面的意思表达不充分,部分信息被省略了或被隐藏起来了。例如,特区是个窗口,是技术的窗口,管理的窗口,知识的窗口,也是对外政策的窗口。不是:The special zone is a window. It is a widow for introducing technology, management and knowledge. It is also a window for foreign policy. 而是The special economic zones are a window opening onto the outside world. They are a window through which to bring in from abroad sophisticated technology, advanced managerial expertise and up-to-date know-how. It is also a window through which to disseminate China’s external policies.

再如,退耕还林:不是return farmland to forest,而应该是restore “woodland-converted farm-plots” back for afforesting 。春运:不是spring transportation,而是the rush / peak season of passenger transportation during the Spring Festival。

第五:有些中文词语没有什么特殊涵义,而与之相对应的英文词语却有着特殊的涵义。例如,与“便宜”、“价廉”相对应的“cheap,”它有时候会带有贬义,成为“质次价低”的意,如cheap jewelries, cheap dresses, cheap furniture 等。我们可以说I bought a cheap watch for my child,对小孩无所谓;但不能说I bought a cheap dress for my girlfriend. 因为这样说会冒犯对方。在后一种情况下必须用inexpensive一词。

第六:避免用中式英语进行表达,而要尽量用地道的英语进行表达。假如我们要把“我过去学过一些法语,但现在都忘了,都还给老师了”这句话翻译成英语,最好不要说 I learned some French in the past. Now I have forgotten it. I’ve returned it to the teacher. 比较好的说法是 I used to know some French, but I’ve forgotten it. It has found its way back to my teacher.

再比如我们要用英语说“我攒了一大堆赃衣服,等着周末来洗,”最好不要说I have accumulated a large amount of dirty clothes. I’m going to wash them at the weekend. 比较好的说法是 I have a lot of laundry to catch up at the weekend.

第七:根据不同场合,英语的表达有庄重(formal) 与随意(informal) 之分。比如“禁止吸烟”(No Smoking)、“请勿吸烟”(Thank you for not smoking) 和“为了您和他人的健康,请勿在此吸烟”(For hygiene’s sake, please refrain yourself from smoking in this room.)下面两组例子中都各包含有formal- normal - informal 三种文体风格(style):

Please await instructions before dispatching items.

Please wait for instructions before sending items off.

Don’t send anything off until you’re told to do so.

Essential measures should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity.

One should undertake any necessary measures at the earliest opportunity.

You should do whatever you have to as soon as you can.

第八:要注意各行各业的不同术语的选择。比如我们要把“专业签证人员”翻译成英语,那么我们就要按照外交用语的习惯把它翻译为visa officers,而不应该照字面上翻译成specialized visa personnel。“安居工程” 的英译不是housing project for low-income urban residents,而应该按照社会经济用语的习惯翻译为the Affordable Housing Program; “信息化”的英译不是informatization 或informationization,而应该按照高科技行业习惯翻译为the spreading / sweeping information explosion / the information explosion process / trend; “外资企业”的英译不是overseas-funded enterprises,而应该按照外贸行业习惯翻译为enterprises with foreign investment / enterprises with foreign elements;再比如,高速公路上的警示语“请勿疲劳驾驶,”翻译成英语不是Don’t drive tiredly,按照交通法规术语应该翻译为Drowsy driving is dangerous 或Drive alert, arrive alive。

第九:注意汉语和英语之间的文化差异。把“相声”翻译成英语不能只是翻译其形式,还要翻译其内涵。翻译成cross talk 外国人不明白;不如翻译为comic dialogue 更好懂。再如,假设我们要把“以外贸为龙头”翻译成英语,能不能直接翻译为with foreign trade as the dragon head呢?这样翻译是很难让外国人明白的,因为“以……为龙头”这个说法是源自耍龙灯的习俗,而多数外国人不一定熟悉中国人的这一习俗。为了取得好的翻译效果,最好是用能够跨越文化障碍的表达方法,如“火车头”或“旗舰”:with foreign trade as the locomotive / flagship。

但是不能机械地对待一切类似的翻译问题,我们的头脑里应该有一点辩证法。比如汉语的“鱼米之乡”(land of fish and rice),在英语里有一个类似的说法land of milk and honey,但由于land of fish and rice 外国人也能理解,不会造成跨化交流的障碍,所以我们可以采用land of fish and rice的说法,以保留一点中国的特色。

第十:对于暗含的意思,必须把它明白地翻译出来,这样便于外国读者理解。例如,”东边日出西边雨,道是无晴却有晴”中的“晴”字,它是个双关语,有“天晴”和“爱情”的双重意思。我们在翻译的时候,必须做到二者兼顾:

It’s sunny in the east but in the west it’s raining hard.

Whether rain or sunshine, he’s the sunshine in my heart.

再如,“这种鞋油为您足下增光”中的“足下”也是个双关语,翻译的时候也必须把两层意思都表达出来:This shoe shine shines your shoes and you look great.

第十一:有时候,比如翻译诗句,光翻译字面上的意思是不够的,还必须把字里行间的深度、力量和美感表达出来。例如,朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨:不是 Wines and meats become rotten in the mansions; Dead bones become rotten at the doors of them, 而是:In the mansions, rolling luxury allows wine and meat to go rotten away;On the streets, grinding poverty causes dead bodies to freeze and decay.

第十二:汉语和英语在语法语序和句子结构上都有很大的差别。因此,在进行中译英的时候必须要考虑到这些方面的变化。例如,改革开放开放取得了巨大的成就:不是The economic reform and the opening-up have made great achievements. 而是把“巨大的成就”当作主语,把主动语态变成被动语态:Great achievements have been made in the economic reform and in our efforts to open-up China to the outside world.

综上所述,一个好的翻译人员必须具有高屋见瓴的视角,要懂得翻译的真谛是什么。要想提高汉英翻译水平,必须加强对上述各种意识的培养。必须养成多层次、多角度的思维习惯。

2020翻译资格考试笔译三级模拟题

网络属于每个人,也属于所有人,需要大家共同建设,共同治理。互联网治理是全球治理的重要组成部分。国际社会应共同努力,构建一个公正合理的互联网全球治理体系。

As the Internet is open to everyone, it needs to be built and managedby all. The governance of the Internet is an important part of global governance. The international community should work together to build a global Internet governance system that is fair and equitable.

网络为世界经济增长和实现千年发展目标提供了强劲动力,在未来全球发展议程中也占据着极为重要的位置。

The Internet is a strong driving force for world economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and takes an important place in the future global development agenda.

21世纪是网络和信息化的世纪。作为拥有6.18亿网民的网络大国,中国高度重视网络安全和信息化工作,致力于不断提高自身网络安全水平。

The 21st century is an era of the Internet and IT application. As amajor cyber state with 618 million Internet users, China attaches great importance to cyber security and IT application and is committed to improving its level of cyber security.

中国始终是网络空间的建设者、维护者和贡献者,致力于与国际社会携手共建和平、安全、开放、合作的网络空间。

China has always been contributing its part to building and maintaining cyber space and committed to working with the rest of the international community to create a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyber space.

在当前网络空间事端频发的背景下,各方应在相互尊重和信任的基础上,以建设性态度开展对话,合作解决分歧。

Amidst the frequent occurrence of incidents in cyber space, parties concerned should take a constructive approach, engage in dialogue on the basis of mutual respect and trust, and resolve differences through cooperation.

信息和通信技术的快速发展,深刻影响着人类经济和社会生活的方方面面,为人类文明发展与进步提供了全新的数字机遇,同时带来了前所未有的挑战。

The fast growth of the information and communication technology (ICT) has exerted profound impacts on all aspects of social and economic life of mankind, and offered brand new digital opportunities for the advancement of human civilization. But at the same time, it has also brought unprecedented challenges.

网络犯罪和网络恐怖主义呈蔓延之势,个别国家大规模网络数据监控活动严重侵犯别国主权和公民隐私,网络攻击事件和军事化倾向损害国际安全与互信,全球范围内互联网发展不平衡的状况亟待改善。

Cybercrime and terrorism have been on the rise. The massive-scalesurveillance activities by an individual country have severely infringed on other countries’ sovereignty and their citizen’s privacy. Cyber-attacks and militarized tendency in cyber space can diminish international security and mutual trust, and the imbalanced development of the Internet worldwide needs to be corrected in a timely way.

网络空间是一个新空间,需要我们倍加珍惜。维护网络空间的安全、稳定与繁荣,是国际社会的共同责任。

Cyber space is a new frontier that deserves our special care. The international community has a shared responsibility to maintain security, stability and prosperity in cyber space.

2020翻译资格考试笔译三级模拟题

在此,我谨代表中国政府,对大会的召开表示热烈祝贺,对远道而来的各位嘉宾表示诚挚欢迎,对长期致力于全球旅游事业发展的各界人士致以崇高敬意!

On behalf of the Chinese government, let me offer warm congratulations on the opening of the conference. I also express sincere welcome to all guests coming from afar, and pay high tribute to those who have long been committed to the development of tourism in the world.

旅游是人类对美好生活的向往与追求,是认识新鲜事物和未知世界的重要途径。

Travel and tourism makes part of the human pursuit for better life; it opens a way to the new and the unknown world.

中国经济保持较高增长速度,居民收入不断增加,交通条件日趋改善,越来越多的人外出旅游。

As the economy grew faster and people’ s income got higher, more and more people could afford to travel. This is even more so whentransportation in China is being made increasingly easier.

even more so 甚至更是如此

中国地域辽阔,历史悠久,民族众多,有着壮美秀丽的自然风光、光辉灿烂的传统文化、各具特色的民族风情,发展旅游业的优势和潜力巨大。

China is a huge country. It has a long history, a splendid culture and enchanting natural scenery. The Chinese population is multi-ethnic,each with its own uniqueness. All this could be translated into advantage and potential for tourism development.

此段英译用到了篇章段落调整,并没有严格依据原文句子顺序。

2015年旅游业对中国GDP的直接贡献率为4.9%,综合贡献率达10.8%。

In 2015, direct contribution and aggregate contribution of tourism to China’s GDP was 4.9% and 10.8% respectively.

但目前中国旅游业发展水平还不高,对国民经济的贡献率仍低于世界平均水平。

That said, tourism is not contributing as much to the economy in China as it does in many other countries.

2015年,中国旅游业直接就业人数近2800万人,加上间接就业总计吸纳8000万人就业,约占全国就业总数的10%。

In 2015, China’s tourism industry directly employed 28 million people, and the total number of jobs created, directly or indirectly, was 80 million. That was roughly 10% of the number of all jobs in the country.

旅游是人与人最直接、最自然的交流方式,是开放的窗口、友谊的纽带、和平的使者。

Tourism is the most direct and natural way of people-to-people exchange. It is a window of openness, a bond of friendship and a messenger of peace.

旅游可以加深理解、减少偏见、增进包容,在促进世界和平中有着独特作用。

Tourism helps deepen understanding, reduce prejudice and enhance inclusiveness. It thus has a special role to play in ensuring world peace.

各国应深化多形式、多层次的旅游合作,加深不同民族和文化之间的尊重、包容和理解,为促进人民友好奠定坚实的基础。

Countries need to step up tourism cooperation in various forms and at multiple levels, and need to deepen respect, accommodation and understanding of the different ethnic groups and cultures in the world, so as to strengthen the foundation for friendship.

旅游作为增长最快、最具韧性的产业部门之一,在促进世界经济复苏中承担着重要作用。据世界银行估算,旅游业每消费1美元,可为全球带来3.2美元的经济增长。

Tourism, which is among the fastest growing and highly resilient of all sectors, plays a vital role in stimulating global economic recovery. According to the World Bank, one dollar of consumption in tourism can generate 3.2 dollars of growth globall

目前,旅游业贡献了全球约10%的GDP、30%的服务出口,是名副其实的第一大产业。未来15年,国际游客数量将由12亿人次增长至18亿人次。

Tourism now contributes to about 10% of global GDP and some 30% of services exports worldwide. It surely stands out as the largest sector in the economic mix. In the next 15 years, the number of international visits worldwide will increase from 1.2 billion to 1.8 billion.

2020翻译资格考试笔译三级模拟题

上海是个大熔炉,居民多数是移民,这使得上海发展了多姿多彩的文化,拥有大批著名的艺术家和文艺团体。

Shanghai is a big melting pot with a population largely made up of migrants. This has lead to the development of the city’s colorful culture. Shanghai Boasts a large number of celebrated artists and performing troupes.

许多世界级的音乐家和艺术家都曾到上海表演,上海还定期举办国际电视电影和艺术节。这些活动都吸引了许多国内外参加者,为上海观众带来了大量高品质的节目。

Many world-class musicians and artist have come to perform in Shanghai. The city regularly host international TV, film and art festivals. These events have drawn many domestic and overseasparticipants and brought an abundance of high-quality programs to Shanghai audiences.

天津,渤海湾上的一颗璀璨的宝石,通往中华人民共和国首都的大门。这座城市拥有悠久而光辉的历史。如今,从形形色色优美的建筑中,古玩市场迂回的街道上林林总总新奇的古玩里,从散落在城市各处的富有宗教风格的大量建筑中,旅行者仍然可以品味到天津悠久的历史。

Tianjin, also known as the diamond of the Bohai Gulf and the gate way to the capital of the People’s Republic of China, has a long andillustrious history. For the visitors today, this legacy can still beglimpsed, in the varied and beautiful architecture, amongst theantiques to be found in the winding streets of the antique market, and with visits to the profusion of religious buildings the litter the city.

illustrious /i'lʌstriəs/

卓越的,杰出的,著名的

(事迹等)辉煌的,灿烂的

[古语]发光的;有光泽的;明亮的

天津高新技术产业园区是经国务院批准的首批高新技术工业发展区。第一个国内软件及服务外包工业基地和超压缩辅助服务项目的开始建设,标志着国内软件及服务外包基地在天津高新园区建设开始进入实施阶段。

Tianjin High-Tech Developmental Park is one of the first-group high-tech industrial development areas approved by the State Council. The first construction project in National Software and Service Outsourcing Industry Base and Compressive Auxiliary Service Areamarks that National Software and Service Outsourcing Industry Base in Tianjin High-Tech Developmental Park has entered the construction stage.

在四个中央直辖市中,重庆是唯一一个位于东西部交汇处的城市,而其他额直辖市,北京、天津和上海都位于中国东部地区。重庆人口超过3000万,面积 82 000 平方公里,承重山河交错,因此旅游资源十分丰富。重庆的中心城区,被在朝天门外交汇的长江和嘉陵江所包围,依山而建,河流环保,因此重庆也被称为“山城”。

Of the four municipalities directly under the Chinese central government, Chongqing is the only one that is located at the joining sector of eastern China and western China, while the other three, Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, are all located in eastern China. With a population of over 30 million and an area of 82 000 square kilometers crisscrossed by mountains and rivers, Chongqing is richly endowed with tourist resource. The downtown area, embraced by the Yangtze and Jialing River that join at Chaotianmen, is a city built on hillside and surrounded by rivers, and therefore, Chongqing is also known as a mountain city.

2020翻译资格考试笔译三级模拟题

9亿多劳动力、1亿多受过高等教育和有专业技能的人才,是我们最大的资源和优势。

A workforce of over 900 million, of whom over 100 million have received higher education or are professionally trained: this is our greatest resource and strength.

今年拟安排财政赤字2.18万亿元,比去年增加5600亿元,赤字率提高到3%。其中,中央财政赤字1.4万亿元,地方财政赤字7800亿元。

The government deficit for 2016 is projected to be 2.18 trillion yuan, an increase of 560 billion yuan over last year, meaning the deficit-to-GDP ratio will rise to 3%. Of the deficit, 1.4 trillion yuan will be carried by the central government, and the remaining 780 billion yuan will be carried by local governments.

实施上述政策,今年将比改革前减轻企业和个人负担5000多亿元。

Through the above policies, the burdens on enterprises and individuals will be cut by more than 500 billion yuan this year.

完成铁路投资8000亿元以上、公路投资1.65万亿元,再开工20项重大水利工程

More than 800 billion yuan will be invested in railway construction, and investment in road construction will reach 1.65 trillion yuan. A further 20 water conservancy projects will be carried out

增加深松土地1.5亿亩,新增高效节水灌溉面积2000万亩

improve the subsoil of an additional ten million hectares of cropland, and increase the area of cropland covered by efficient water-saving irrigation by 1.33 million hectares

十五亩等于一公顷

今年要完成1000万以上农村贫困人口脱贫任务,其中易地搬迁脱贫200万人以上,继续推进贫困农户危房改造。

This year, we will help more than ten million rural residents lift themselves out of poverty, including over two million poor residents who are to be relocated from inhospitable areas

中央财政安排城乡医疗救助补助资金160亿元,增长9.6%。

The central government will allocate 16 billion yuan to be used in both rural and urban areas for medical assistance and subsidies, an increase of 9.6% over last year.

整合城乡居民基本医保制度,财政补助由每人每年380元提高到420元。

We will merge the basic medical insurance systems for rural and non-working urban residents and raise government subsidies for the scheme from 380 to 420 yuan per capita per annum.

根据国际货币基金组织2013年数据,按购买力平价(PPP)计算,香港本地生产总值位居全球第35位,人均本地生产总值位居全球第7位。

According to the 2013 statistics of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Hong Kong’s GRP and per-capita GRP, respectively, ranked the 35th and 7th in the world, as calculated by purchasing power parity.

2012年,四大产业增加值共占香港本地生产总值的58%,吸纳就业人数占总就业人数的47.2%。

In 2012, these four sectors employed 47.2 percent of Hong Kong’s total working population, and their added value accounted for 58 percent of Hong Kong’s total GRP.

香港婴儿死亡率由1997年的4‰下降至2013年的1.6‰,是全球婴儿死亡率最低的地方之一。

The infant mortality rate dropped from 4 per thousand in 1997 to 1.6 per thousand in 2013, which is among the world’s lowest.


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