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1.You can already buy small video telephones,with builtin-screen and cameras,that transmit still images over regular telephone lines to anyone else with avideo telephone.


  2.The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment.

  科学工作者力图精确地描述这些问题,然后根据通过观察和实验收集到的有关事实来解决这些问题。(介词短语in accurate terms作方式方法状语,说明to formulate。in the light...experiment作方式方法状语,说明tosolve。)

  3.The atom is analogous to a miniature solar system,with a nucleus as the“sun''’and electrons as the“planets''’revolving in orbits around the nucleus.  

  原子类似于一个小型太阳系,原子核可看作“太阳”,电子可看作是沿轨道绕着核旋转的‘行星”。 (analogous to, “与……相似”。with a nucleus as..,and(with) electrons as...是 with引出的复合结构,用来对solar system作补充说明。)

  4.The unit of heat on the c.g.s.system is the calorie,which is established as the amount of heat required to raise one gramme of water by one degree centigrade.

  热的厘米·克·秒制单位是卡,将1克水升高摄氏1度所需的热量定为1卡。(c.g.s.system=centimeter-gramsecond system,“厘米·克·秒制”。介词短语on...system作定语,修饰unit。

 by所引导的介词短语是raise要求的,这里by表示数量增减的绝对值。例如:increase by 10%,“增加10%”;decrease by two orders of magnitude,“减小两个数量级”。)

  5.Sometimes the individual crystals,with plane faces and sharp edges and corners,are visible to the naked eye,and sometimes they can be seen only under a microscope.

  单晶有时用肉眼就能看得到,有时只有在显微镜下才能看得见,这种单晶有着平的晶面和锐利的棱角。(with plane faces...corners是介词短语用作独立定语,修饰crystals。)

  6.Modern Japan and other Oriental countries are emerging with the irresistible urge for better standards of living and anovel, powerful role in the world’s economy.


  7.Liquids,however,are highly incompressible;that is,very large pressures,of the order of thousands of tons per square inch,are required to diminish their volumes appreciably.

  但是,液体是非常不易压缩的;要明显地压缩液体的体积,就需要巨大的压力,其数量级达每平方英寸几千吨。(介词短语of the order...inch是独立定语,修饰pressures。)

  8.One suggestion has been the use of mixtures of two different types of insecticide,with the idea that one of them should eliminate the individuals resistant to the other.

  有一种设想是使用两种不同类型的混合杀虫剂,其想法是如果害虫对其中之一有抗药性,那么另一种就能杀死它。(介词短语with the idea一.the other作two types of insecticide的定语,对它作补充说明。that引导的从句作idea的同位语。resistand to the other是形容词短语作individuals定语。) 

  9.The side of Mercury which is turned away from the sun remains in eternal darkness,with a temperature only a few degrees above absolute zero.

  水星背向太阳的那一面,却永远处于黑暗之中,那里的温度仅比绝对零度高几度。(with a temperature above对the side of Mercury补充说明。)

 10.No distinction can be drawn between pure and applied science in terms of differences in the training or competence of workers, or in organization, or in method,or even in the immediate outcome of the work.

  不能根据工作人员的训练程度和资格、组织机构、研究方法甚至研究工作的直接成果等方面的差别来划分理论科学与应用科学的界线。(between.一science作定语,修饰distinction。in terms of...作状语,说明can be drawn。)

  11.An object with at least one easily measurable property which changes apprecially while the obiect is coming to thermal equilibrium may be used as a temperature-measuring device,or thermometer.

  当一种物质进入热平衡时,至少具有一种变化显著因而易于测量的特性,这种物质可用来作为测温装置,即温度计。(with一.equilibrium用作定语,修饰An object。)

  12.If we could go on an imaginary journey from the surface to the centre of a star such as the Sun,we would find a steady increase in temperature and pressure.

  如果我们能从像太阳这样的恒星的表面到其中心作一次想像的旅行,我们会发现温度和压力将持续不断地增加。(from...to...the Sun用作定语,修饰journey。)

  13.The fact that a compass needle assulnes a northsouth direction leads to the conclusion that the earth must be a magnet, with the space all around it constituting a huge magnetic field.



14.The second aspect is the application by all members of society,from the government officials to the ordinary citizen,of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work。

  第二方面涉及从政府官员到普通公民等所有社会成员运用科学家在工作中所用的思维和行动的特定方法。(from.。.to...作非限定性定语修饰members。by和of所引导的两个介词短语均修饰the application,of...短语被两个介词短语分隔开了。)

15.Chemistry has two main aspects:descriptive chemistry,the discovery and tabulation of chemical facts;and theoretical chemistry,the formulation of theories that,upon verification,unify these facts and combine them into a system。

  化学有两个主要方面:叙述性化学,即化学事实的发现和制表;理论化学,即对化学理论的系统阐述,根据验证把化学事实统一起来,从而归纳成一个体系。(the discovery...facts是descriptive chemistry的同位语,the formulation...a system是theoretical chemistry的同位语,其中that引出定语从句,upon verification用作状语。)

  16.Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 

宇宙中每一物体都以一引力吸引另外的每一物体,该引力与两物体质量的乘积成正比,而与两物体之间的距离平方成反比。(with a force...是状语,说明attracts。directly proponional to..,“与……成正比”;inversely proportional to..,“与……成反比”。这两个形容词短语用来说明force。)


17.For an ltalian contemplating anything from paying his taxes to getting a peddler''s license or collecting an old age pension,the nation''s million-man bureaucracy is a nightmare。

  对意大利人来说,无论打算做什么事,从纳税到申请零售商执照或领取老年人的退休金, 全国上百万个官僚主义者真令人不寒而栗。(For..。pension介词短语是nightmare“恶梦”要 求的。例:It was a nightmare for me。from...to...pension作定语修饰anything。)

  18.Scientists in the U.S. , Western Europe and Japan are pushing hard toward astill much-in-the-future optical computer that uses photons rather than electrons for number-crunching efficiency.


  19.With the invention of the electromagnetic generator in the latter part of the nineteenth century,it became possible to convent the energy of burning fuel to electricity which could then be transmitted to distant points for Use.


  20.If a piece of rock,of anything else,one inch in diameter were magnified to the size of the earth,its constituent atoms would become about the size of tennis balls.