The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes.
Ever since the appearance of convenient printing method and huge libraries, modern education became possible. Since then, the process of accumulation of knowledge was greatly accelerated, for mankind's knowledge storation can be developed in a systematic way. Education's function is to prepare our youth for the future by lending them the ability to discover mysteries of the world themselves or from books. The history of the human race gives us the impression that the major benefit we get from the academic training is the ability to perceive the world in different ways.
The most primitive form of education, which helped our ancestors, the cavemen, to survive in the harsh conditions during the pioneering period of human history, already possessed the power to change people's perspective. When a child learnt how to make a fire, he was brought to a brand new world, in which he was no longer the game of wild animals and the weakest creature facing the mightiness of nature. He could better understand and conquer the surroundings; the long winter, might have been one of the dangerous enemies in his eyes, seemed weaker since the fire he made could ensure him the victory. Once we have the ability to harness more power, we regard the nature in new ways; we used to have to adapt to the nature absolutely, however,today we could transform it to certain extends.
It is the coming of science and many other realms that truly and profoundly changed our view of the world. We can see further and deeper, thanks to the inventions of macroscope and microscope. But that is hardly the whole thing the science has presented in front of us. Science, widely taught in every secondary school around the world, not only allows us to see what we couldn't see before, but also allows us to get new information and knowledge from that we could see before. Only when a student finishes his course in basic physics, could he understand why some things are hot while others are cooler, and could he know what happens during the cooling down of a cup of hot water. What we observe does not change; nevertheless, the knowledge we learn from changes because of the new power science gives us. The study of science enables us to learn the truths behind the complex phenomena and to use the truths learnt to serve the mankind.
The study of diverse disciplines not only provides us with the ability to learn more, but also the intentions to think more and seek for the general principles. The study of philosophy, histories, classics, and other disciplines deepens our thoughts rather than broadening our scopes. Let's take philosophy for example, which inspires us to dig more deeply in our thoughts and hones our ability to form a correct judgment of our situations and our worlds. We may encounter the death of others, however, we won't understand the life and the death, were it not for the study of philosophy. We will also get more from the reading of all the good books, which is just like a conversation with the finest men of past centuries. We may not see more, but we inspect more; we may not hear more, but we listen to more. This best demonstrates the power of these disciplines and the value of studying them.
Human, the most intelligent, and rational beings on the Earth, stands in the dominant position of our world for thousands of years. We cannot make the wildest guess at what our world would like without the different realms of our thoughts and the education imparting these treasures to our descendants. Different fields of study give us different perspectives of this world, only when we properly and usefully assimilate the various discoveries in myriad disciplines, could we form a most brilliant picture of our today and of our tomorrow.
The following appeared as part of an article in a daily newspaper:
"Most companies would agree that as the risk of physical injury occurring on the job increases, the wages paid to employees should also increase. Hence it makes financial sense for employers to make the workplace safer: they could thus reduce their payroll expenses and save money."
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.
This argument states that it makes financial sense for employers to make the workplace safer because by making the workplace safer then lower wages could be paid to employees. This conclusion is based on the premise that as the list of physical injury increases, the wages paid to employees should also increase. However, there are several assumptions that may not necessarily apply to this argument. For example, the costs associated with making the workplace safe must outweigh the increased payroll expenses due to hazardous conditions. Also, one must look at the plausability of improving the work environment. And finally, because most companies agree that as the risk of injury increases so will wages doesn't necessarily mean that the all companies which have hazardous work environments agree.
The first issue to be addressed is whether increased labor costs justify large capital expenditures to improve the work environment. Clearly one could argue that if making the workplace safe would cost an exorbitant amount of money in comparison to leaving the workplace as is and paying slightly increased wages than it would not make sense to improve the work environment. For example, if making the workplace safe would cost $100 million versus additional payroll expenses of only $5,000 per year, it would make financial sense to simply pay the increased wages. No business or business owner with any sense would pay all that extra money just to save a couple dollars and improve employee health and relations. To consider this, a cost benefit analysis must be made. I also feel that although a cost benefit analysis should be the determining factor with regard to these decisions making financial sense, it may not be the determining factor with regard to making social, moral and ethical sense.
This argument also relies on the idea that companies solely use financial sense in analysing improving the work environment. This is not the case. Companies look at other considerations such as the negative social ramifications of high on-job injuries. For example, Toyota spends large amounts of money improving its environment because while its goal is to be profitable, it also prides itself on high employee morale and an almost perfectly safe work environment. However, Toyota finds that it can do both, as by improving employee health and employee relations they are guaranteed a more motivated staff, and hence a more efficient staff; this guarantees more money for the business as well as more safety for the employees.
Finally one must understand that not all work environments can be made safer. For example, in the case of coal mining, a company only has limited ways of making the work environment safe. While companies may be able to ensure some safety precautions, they may not be able to provide all the safety measures necessary. In other words, a mining company has limited ability to control the air quality within a coal mine and therefore it cannot control the risk of employees getting blacklung. In other words, regardless of the intent of the company, some jobs are simply dangerous in nature.
In conclusion, while at first it may seem to make financial sense to improve the safety of the work environment sometimes it truly does not make financial sense. Furthermore, financial sense may not be the only issue a company faces. Other types of analyses must be made such as the social ramifications of an unsafe work environment and the overall ability of a company to improve that environment (i.e。， coal mine)。 Before any decision is made, all this things must be considered, not simply the reduction of payroll expenses.
1. 字数高达599words, GRE充分体现了字数为王的判分倾向。
2. 中一的TS -- “The first issue to be addressed is whether increased labor costs justify large capital expenditures to improve the work environment.”可谓是一针见血，一剑封喉。对于这样严重的推理漏洞，如果不首先指出，其argument必然软弱乏力。此所谓Topic中的 “必削点”，不可不察。
3. 中二的TS – “This argument also relies on the idea that companies solely use financial sense in analysing improving the work environment.”这可谓是剑走偏锋，独辟蹊径，出人所料。文章竟然批评了Topic以钱为本经营理念，提出了要以人为本，这样写是有一定风险，毕竟这不是Issue。那本文是如何化险为夷的呢?且看本段最后一句“this guarantees more money for the business as well as more safety for the employees.”我不由得长舒一口，人家再次回归了，又回到了Topic中以“Money”为本的推理。
4. 中三的TS – “Finally one must understand that not all work environments can be made safer.”这充分体现了作者不只是坐而论道的arguer，而是关心其可行性的现实主义者，考虑到方案本身的可行性和局限性。
5. 末端不但对首段提出的论点做出了重复性的总结，GRE而且又不厌其烦地把中间三段的ideas一一罗列。如此“啰嗦”估计令某些同学略有不齿，但这恰恰是美国人的最爱，cultural shock了吧?
1. 中间段一，运用了“设例”GRE(假设的情况)，$100 million啦、$5,000了，很幼稚是吧?可美国人喜欢啊;咱中国的学生，尤其是理工科的，喜欢用一些相当高深的例子，有没有想过那些阅卷老师能看懂吗?尤其是在极短时间内，他们IQ又不高，知识又不多，联想又不丰富……
以上这一切怎能不让美国阅卷者频频颔首，GRE啧啧称善呢?他或她手中的笔在纸上划出了一条美丽的弧线 —— 6